The Viking helmet, also known as the Gjermunbdu helmet, originates from the 10th century in central Norway. This helmet has a round cap and the neck was protected with mail aventail (chainmail). It has a spectacle guard around the nose and eyes forming a mask. This design is similar to Vendel period helmets. There are five types of Viking helmets that have been discovered but only the Gjermundbu was able to be reconstructed to see the entire design. Archaeologists believe that Vikings may have only rarely used metal helmets. Instead, the majority of their battle helmets were likely made of leather. Helmets with metal horns may have been used for ceremonial purposes millennia earlier but there is no evidence that Vikings used horned helmets in battle at any point in history. It has been suggested that horned helmets became associated with Viking helmets due to a 19th century opera.
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